。混沌。建築。

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這裡是國立新竹教育大學榮芳杰老師, 有關於「文化遺產管理」與「世界遺產研究」的分享園地!
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關於2008年ICOMOS的「魁北克宣言」(Quebec Declaration)

 

 
2008 ICOMOS
16屆年會,已經在104於加拿大魁北克落幕。

 
上一屆2005年會,我曾經隨同我的老師參加過中國西安所主辦的那場文化遺產維護領域的全球盛會。說是「盛會」真的是一點都不誇張,舉凡在會議舉行期間我們在城市裡的交通專車往返都是警車開道,全線交通管制封鎖單向車道外,還外加許多備受禮遇的接待,當然拉,這當然也是另一個華人社會在文化遺產領域上展露頭角的機會。但對我來說,那次的會議是成功的,至少是很高規格的把所有世界各國的與會代表視為國家的座上賓。今年,棒子交給了加拿大的魁北克市舉辦,同時,今年的魁北克市是建城400週年紀念(今年的516加拿大政府也發行了建城400週年的紀念郵票與首日封,如下圖)。
 
這次「國際文化紀念物暨歷史場所委員會」(ICOMOS)第16屆大會暨國際科學研討會(16th General Assembly and International Scientific Symposium)是在2008929104日於加拿大魁北克舉行。此次國際會議的主題為「場所精神:在無形文化遺產與有形文化遺產之間」(The Spirit of Place: between the Intangible and the Tangible)。其中,這次會議的新玩意兒是在9月的2728日兩天所舉辦的「青年論壇」(Forum of Young Researchers and professionals),ICOMOS的目的就是為了要廣邀年輕學者開始加入ICOMOS的這個大家庭。這次會議的主題之下,還細分為四個子題,這四個子題也分別代表了當前在面對「場所精神」這個議題時的困境。然而,我們回到建築史上的脈絡來看,「場所精神」其實是從古羅馬時期的genius loci一詞來的,Christian Norberg-Schulz甚至首次將建築領域的場所精神納入現象學的討論之中(註1),因此從文化遺產的觀點來看,場所精神所涵蓋的實質意義最主要是強調遺產場所的存在價值以及不容忽視的世代傳承意味。但這次會議的核心價值,還是在於集思廣益的將這個議題做更進一步的時代定位,另一方面當然是無形文化遺產在歷史場所中的角色,該如何被突顯的問題。所以大會這四個子題我整理如下,並附上這次的「魁北克宣言」全文重點解讀 (註2):
 
1. 場所精神的再思考(Re-thinking the Spirit of Place
這個會議主題的關鍵字是:material culture theory, objectification, heritage making, social use, community, commemoration, memory, remembering, forgetting.。這個主題談論的是過去到現在有關於有形或無形場所精神的相關理論探討,這當中涉及到場所精神的來源往往始於人類的詮釋與定義,更包含了所謂的記憶這件事情,因此如何從記憶的觀點來討論場所精神的存在意義,在這個子題中將會進行深入討論。
 
2. 場所精神的威脅(The Threats to the Spirit of Place
這個會議主題的關鍵字是:conflicts, frontiers, degradation, destruction, abandonment, tourism, folklorization, innovation, cultural behavior, nostalgia, migrations, listing, inventories.這個主題談論的是任何會威脅到場所精神的有形或無形的事物,該如何被確認與界定,尤其是許多基於觀光事業活動所產生的威脅,更是歷史場所的重大挑戰。
 
3. 場所精神的保衛(Safeguarding the Spirit of Place
這個會議主題的關鍵字是:conservation policies and practices, legal framework, plurality, reflexivity, restoration, integration, tradition bearers.。這個主題談的當然是在上述兩個子題的探討下,該如何去保護或是預防場所精神的價值與意義不會遭到破壞,但大多數的國家都會制定有形文化遺產的保護政策與法令,但針對無形文化遺產的部份則是付之闕如,因此這部份還有很大的空間來做改善。
 
4. 場所精神的延續(Transmitting the Spirit of Place
這個會議主題的關鍵字是:interpretation, transmission, safeguarding, meaning, mediation, transformation, appropriation, recontextualization, revitalization, technologies.這個主題談的是場所精神本質狀態的傳遞,有點像是如何透過一套有系統的方法或過程來使得遺產的生命得以延續。這當然涉及到如果場所精神無法被有效地傳遞給下一個世代時,應該藉由什麼樣的方法被維繫,也許是攝影技術或是其他高科技工具來得以保存或維護。
 
聽說.,哈,我只能說聽說,今年的魁北克會議辦的不是挺有趣的,大概是上屆的西安會議把大家嚇到了,就好像下屆的奧運主辦國英國也會緊張一樣,我想這是不同的與會經驗,雖然我不克前往,但相信我,任何世界上的最新資訊都可以在internet上找到的。下屆的舉辦國在伊朗,下屆我應該不會再錯過了,哈。
 
 
1正式從現象學出發來討論建築議題的著作,應是由諾伯休茲(Christian Norberg-schulz)所寫的《場所精神:邁向建築現象學》(Genius Loci: towards a phenomenology of architecture)一書。諾伯休茲這本書主要是以海德格的思想為本,反而與胡賽爾的理論並無太大的關聯。會採取海德格的論述是因為他的知名著作《存有與時間》闡述了如何解釋現象學的概念,因此,諾伯休茲主要的論點在於強調回歸「日常生活世界」(everyday life-world),指出「地方」是存在的整體現象,其「結構」由「空間」(space)及「特質」(character)組成,其「本質」為「自明(證)性」(identification)及「方向性」(orientation)。而建築就是在於「製造地方」。諾伯休茲提取空間之主要特質「方向性」及特質的主要核心概念「自明(證)性」而導引出「地方」的「精神」(spirit)。這兩個特質在存在主義的論述中是中心課題,他們認為人類失去自明(證)性及方向性,則將感到「迷失」(lost),而不知所之。「自明(證)性」強調自明性使人感到「在家裡」(at home),即感覺所處環境富於意義。諾伯休茲所提出Genius Loci一詞的用意與現象學強調的「本質」(essence)相類。諾伯休茲認為隨著社會、政治、經濟的變遷,一個地方的Genius Loci是不輕易改變的,因此必須尊重當地根本之特質,但諾伯休茲也強調尊重Genius Loci並不是意味著要去模仿古老的模式,他直接引用Alfred North Whitehead的一段話來說明這個概念:「進步的藝術就是在變化中保存秩序和在秩序中變化」(the art of progress is to preserve order amid change, and change amid order)。
※以上註1文字,主要是參酌並引用自季鐵男(1992)《建築現象學導論》,臺北:桂冠圖書。
 

2:附上今年ICOMOS「魁北克宣言」英文全文(中文翻譯轉載在自文建會官方網站)。另外,針對這次「魁北克宣言」的部份,我幫大家整理一下重點好了,首先,這個宣言的源起還是得回ICOMOS向來的傳統,也就是許多的宣言或是憲章都是不斷地從過去的論述中演變而來,也就是現在的「魁北克宣言」並不是從石頭蹦出來的,它可以像是在導論中所提到,從2003年的Kimberly宣言中所強調對於場所所附加上的無形記憶、信仰、傳統知識等,當然也包括傳承了2005年西安宣言中所談到一個場域的維繫必須要清楚地從各種既存的涵構以及各種無形文化遺產的特質來維繫。另外,也提到了青年論壇(Youth Forum)在這次會議的開創性,同時也強調場所精神指的是有形的建築物、歷史場所、地景、路徑、物件…等,無形的包括了有記憶、口述敘事、書寫文件、儀式、節慶、傳統知識、價值、規範…等等元素所構成。另外也不免俗地有談到跟我博士論文研究有關的動態管理的特質觀念,最後,再從大會那四個子題去延伸最後的宣言架構。

魁北克市宣言:場所精神的保存
QUEBEC CITY DECLARATION
ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE SPIRIT OF PLACE
 
2008年10月4日,於加拿大魁北克市通過
Adopted at Quebec City, Canada, October 4th 2008
 

序文
應加拿大ICOMOS之邀,且恭逢魁北克建城400年盛會,ICOMOS16屆年會2008929104日在魁北克舉行。與會者通過下列原則宣言,並提出捍衛有形和無形遺產,以保存場所精神的建議,因為這是確保全球永續與社會發展,既富創意又有實效的方法。
Preamble
Meeting in the historic city of Quebec (Canada), from September 29th to October 4th 2008, at the invitation of ICOMOS Canada, on the occasion of the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS and the celebrations marking the 400th anniversary of the founding of Quebec City, the participants adopt the following Declaration of principles and recommendations to preserve the spirit of place through the safeguarding of tangible and intangible heritage, which is regarded as an innovative and efficient manner to ensure sustainable and social development throughout the world.
 
 
本宣言乃過去五年來,ICOMOS為捍衛並促進場所精神,亦即場所的生活、社會與精神本質,所採行之系列措施與行動的一部分。2003年,ICOMOS召開第14屆年會,特將「紀念物與場所之社會無形價值的保存」,訂為科學研討會主題。在隨後通過的Kimberly宣言中,ICOMOS承諾依1972年世界遺產公約,將無形價值(記憶、信仰、傳統知識、地方情感),以及在紀念物與場址的管理、保存上,扮演前述價值守護角色的當地社群,列入考慮。ICOMOS2005年西安宣言,提醒世人在保護與促進世界遺產紀念物與場址的同時,要重視被界定為實體、視覺與自然層面,以及社會、精神習慣、風俗、傳統知識的脈絡,以及其他無形體例與表現方式的保存。宣言同時呼籲博採跨學科途徑,讓資訊來源多元化,方能更了解脈絡,做更好的管理與保存。ICOMOS美洲地區2008年擬定的Foz Do Iguaçu宣言,闡明遺產成分的有形與無形,對已創立並傳承其文化與歷史意義的社群特質的保存,是不可或缺的。ICOMOS的文化路徑(Cultural Routes)和詮釋與呈現(Interpretation and Presentation)憲章,亦認同遺產的無形層面與場所精神價值的重要性。這些憲草經過廣泛磋商後方才擬定,呈送本次第16屆年會批准。由於有形與無形遺產特質的不可分割,無形遺產且能賦予物件與場所特別的意義、價值與脈絡,ICOMOS正考慮通過針對紀念物與場址之無形遺產特別擬定的新憲草。在這方面,我們鼓勵透過討論與辯論,發展出一套足以解釋場所精神之實體改變的新概念語彙。
This Declaration is part of a series of measures and actions undertaken by ICOMOS over the course of the last five years to safeguard and promote the spirit of places, namely their living, social and spiritual nature. In 2003, ICOMOS dedicated the scientific symposium of its 14th General Assembly to the theme of the preservation of social intangible values of monuments and sites. In the ensuing Kimberly Declaration, ICOMOS committed itself to taking into account the intangible values (memory, beliefs, traditional knowledge, attachment to place) and the local communities that are the custodians of these values in the management and the preservation of monuments and sites under the World Heritage Convention of 1972. The ICOMOS Xi’an Declaration of 2005 draws attention to the conservation of context, defined as physical, visual and natural aspects as well as social and spiritual practices, customs, traditional knowledge and other intangible forms and expressions, in the protection and promotion of world heritage monuments and sites. It also calls upon a multidisciplinary approach and diversified sources of information in order to better understand, manage and conserve context. The Declaration of Foz Do Iguaçu, drawn up in 2008 by the ICOMOS Americas Region, specifies that the tangible and intangible components of heritage are essential for the preservation of the identity of communities that have created and transmitted spaces of cultural and historical significance. The new ICOMOS charters on Cultural Routes and on Interpretation and Presentation, formulated after extensive consultations and presented for ratification at the present 16th ICOMOS General Assembly, also recognizes the importance of intangible dimensions of heritage and the spiritual value of place. Because of the indivisible nature of tangible and intangible heritage and the meanings, values and context intangible heritage gives to objects and places, ICOMOS is currently considering the adoption of a new charter dedicated specifically to the intangible heritage of monuments and sites. In this regard, we encourage discussions and debates to develop a new conceptual vocabulary that accounts for the ontological changes of the spirit of place.
 
 
16屆大會,具體而言,就是青年論壇、原住民論壇與科學研討會,提供了進一步探索有形與無形遺產,以及場所精神之內部社會與文化機制之關係的機會。場所精神被界定為有形(建築物、場址、景觀、路徑、物件)和無形成分(記憶、口述、書面文件、儀式、慶典、傳統知識、價值、氣味),為實體與精神成分,能賦予場所意義、價值、情感與神秘。我們未將場所與精神分開,從有形抽離無形,視他們為相反的事物,而是去調查兩者互動,相輔相成的多種方式。場所精神是由各個社會角色、社會建築師、管理者和使用者,共同建構而成,這些角色都能主動奉獻,共同賦予其意義。就相關概念而言,場所精神具多元與動態特質,故能擁有多重意義及與眾不同的特色,能與時推移,同時隸屬不同群體。這種較動態的方法,在今日的全球化世界中也比較容易適應。這種全球化世界的主要特色,就是跨國人口移動、人口徙置、文化接觸增加、多元社會,以及對場所的多重依戀。
The 16th General Assembly, more specifically the Youth Forum, the Aboriginal Forum and the Scientific Symposium, has given the opportunity to explore further the relationship between tangible and intangible heritage, and the internal social and cultural mechanics of the spirit of place. The spirit of place is defined as the tangible (buildings, sites, landscapes, routes, objects) and the intangible elements (memories, oral narratives, written documents, rituals, festivals, traditional knowledge, values, odors), the physical and the spiritual elements, that give meaning, value, emotion and mystery to place. Rather than set apart spirit from place, the intangible from the tangible, and consider them as opposed to each other, we have investigated the many ways in which the two interact and mutually construct one another. The spirit of place is constructed by various social actors, its architects and managers as well as its users, who all contribute actively and concurrently to giving it meaning. Considered as a relational concept, the spirit of place takes on a plural and dynamic character, capable of possessing multiple meanings and singularities, of changing through time, and of belonging to different groups. This more dynamic approach is also better adapted to today’s globalized world characterized by transnational population movements, relocated populations, increased intercultural contacts, pluralistic societies, and multiple attachments to place.
 
 
場所精神讓人對生活,同時也對紀念物、場址及文化景觀亙古不變的特色,有較全面的了解。它提供了文化遺產更豐富、更動態的全方位視野。場所精神應人類之社會需求而生,以某種形式存在於全球文化之中。在場所內定居的群體,特別是傳統社會,與群體記憶、生命力、持續性與性靈的捍衛,應有密切關聯。
The spirit of place offers a fuller understanding of the living and, at the same time, permanent character of monuments, sites and cultural landscapes. It provides a richer, more dynamic, and inclusive vision of cultural heritage. The spirit of place exists, in one form or another, in practically all the cultures of the world, and is constructed by human beings in response to their social needs. The communities that inhabit place, especially when they are traditional societies, should be intimately associated to the safeguarding of its memory, vitality, continuity and spirituality.
 
 
因此,ICOMOS16屆大會的與會者,向政府間與非政府組織、國家與地方當局,以及所有機構與專家,提出包含下列宣言的原則與建議,因為他們能透立法、政策制訂、規劃過程與管理等手段,貢獻一己之力,讓場所精神獲得更好的保護和推銷。
The participants of the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS therefore address the following Declaration of principles and recommendations to intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, national and local authorities and all institutions and specialists able to contribute through legislation, policies, planning processes and management to better protect and promote the spirit of place.
 
 
場所精神的再思考(Rethinking the Spirit of Place
1. 了解場所精神由有形(場址、建築物、景觀、路徑、物件),與無形元素(記憶、口頭敘述、書面文件、儀式、慶典、傳統知識、價值、氣味)構成。這些元素不僅對場所的形成有重大貢獻,還賦予它靈魂。我們宣布,無形文化遺產可為整體遺產提供更豐富、更完整的意義,所以,所有文化遺產的相關立法,以及所有紀念物、場域、景觀、路徑與收藏物件的保存與維修計畫,都必須將其列入考慮。
1. Recognizing that the spirit of place is made up of tangible (sites, buildings, landscapes, routes, objects) as well as intangible elements (memories, oral narratives, written documents, festivals, commemorations, rituals, traditional knowledge, values, odors), which all contribute significantly to making place and to giving it spirit, we declare that intangible cultural heritage provides a richer and more complete meaning to heritage as a whole and it must be taken into account in all legislation dealing with cultural heritage, and in all projects of conservation and restoration of monuments, sites, landscapes, routes and collections of objects.
 
 
2.由於場所精神不僅複雜,而且形貌多變,為了進一步了解、保存與傳遞場所精神,我們要求政府與其他權益攸關者,務必多向跨學科研究團隊和傳統從業人員請益。
2. Because the spirit of place is complex and multiform, we demand that governments and other stakeholders call upon multidisciplinary research teams and traditional practitioners in order to better understand, preserve and transmit the spirit of place.
 
 
3.由於場所精神是因應社區改變及持續發展之需,不斷再造的一種過程,我們認同場所精神依其記憶的習慣,會因時間及文化之不同而有所改變,所以同一場所可以擁有數種精神,且由不同群體共享。
3. Since the spirit of place is a process, continuously reconstructed, in response to the needs of change and continuity of communities, we uphold that it can vary in time and from one culture to another according to their practices of memory, and that a place can have several spirits and be shared by different groups.
 
 
場所精神的威脅(Identifying the Threats to the Spirit of Place
4.由於氣候變化、大量觀光、軍事衝突與城市開發,招致社會變遷與瓦解,我們需要更全面地了解這些威脅,預為防範,並提出永續的解決之道。我們建議政府與非政府機構、地方與國家遺址組織,必須發展長期策略性計畫,防範場所精神及其環境惡化。應指導居民與地方當局共同捍衛場所精神,讓他們對變遷的世界所帶來的威脅能有所準備。
4. Since climatic changes, mass tourism, armed conflict and urban development induce transformation and disruption on societies, we need to more fully understand these threats to prepare preventive measures and sustainable solutions. We recommend that governmental and non-governmental agencies, local and national heritage organizations, develop long term strategic plans to prevent degradation of the spirit of place and its environment. Safeguarding the spirit of place should also be instructed to the inhabitants and local authorities so that they may be prepared to deal with the threats of a changing world.
 
 
5.若干群體共享場所,會為其帶來不同的精神,亦使得競爭與衝突的危機升高,我們認定此類場域需要特定管理計畫與策略,以適應現代多文化社會的多元脈絡。場所精神的威脅在少數族群之間尤其高張,無論在地或外來者,我們建議此類族群,應受到特定政策與習慣最優先與一流的照顧。
5. As the sharing of places invested with different spirits by several groups increases the risk of competition and conflict, we recognize that these sites require specific management plans and strategies, adapted to the pluralistic context of modern multicultural societies. Because the threats to the spirit of place are especially high amongst minority groups, whether native or newcomer, we recommend that these groups benefit first and foremost from specific policies and practices.
 
 
場所精神的捍衛(Safeguarding the Spirit of Place
6.由於當今世上大部分國家的場所精神,具體言之,即其無形的元素,並未得利於過去的教育計畫或立法保護,我們建議發展論壇、諮詢不同領域的專家與當地資源提供者,並發展訓練計畫與法律政策,以強化保衛並促進場所精神。
6. Because in most countries of the world today the spirit of place, more specifically its intangible components, currently benefit neither from formal educational programs nor legal protection, we recommend the development of forums and consultations with experts from different backgrounds and with resource persons from local communities, the development of training programs and legal policies in order to better safeguard and promote the spirit of place.
 
 
7.現代數位科技(數位資料庫、網站)能以低成本、高效率的方式,開發多媒體清單,整合遺產的有形與無形元素。為了讓遺產場所及其精神受到比較完善的保存、散播和提倡,我們強烈建議廣泛運用此類科技。這些科技能加速多樣性發展,確保場所精神文件的持續更新。
7. Considering that modern digital technologies (digital data bases, web sites) can be used efficiently and effectively at a low cost to develop multimedia inventories that integrate tangible and intangible elements of heritage, we strongly recommend their widespread use in order to better preserve, disseminate and promote heritage places and their spirit. These technologies facilitate the diversity and constant renewal of the documentation on the spirit of place.
 
 
場所精神的傳遞(Transmitting the Spirit of Place
8.了解場所精神主要是由人類傳遞,且傳遞又是保存的重要部份,我們宣布唯有透過互動溝通與相關群體的參與,場所精神方能獲得最有效的捍衛、使用與鞏固。溝通是保持場所精神生生不息的最佳工具。
8. Recognizing that the spirit of place is transmitted essentially by people, and that transmission is an important part of its conservation, we declare that it is through interactive communication and participation of the concerned communities that the spirit of place is most efficiently safeguarded, used and enhanced. Communication is the best tool for keeping the spirit of place alive.
 
 
9.鑒於當地社會,尤其是傳統文化群體,一般而言最能感受到場所精神,我們主張他們最具資格來捍衛它,且所有保存和傳遞場所精神的努力應與他們密切相關。應鼓勵各種非正式(口頭敘述、儀式、表演、傳統經驗與習慣等)與正式(教育計畫、數位資料庫、網站、教具、多媒體簡報等)傳播方法,因其確保的不僅是場所精神的捍衛,更重要的是群體的永續與社會發展。
9. Given that local communities are generally in the best position to sense the spirit of place, especially in the case of traditional cultural groups, we maintain that they are also best equipped to safeguard it and should be intimately associated in all endeavors to preserve and transmit the spirit of place. Non-formal (oral narratives, rites, performances, traditional experience and practice, etc.) and formal (educational programs, digital data bases, web sites, pedagogical tools, multimedia presentations, etc.) means of transmission should be encouraged because they ensure not only the safeguarding of the spirit of place but, more importantly, the sustainable and social development of the community.
 
 
10.了解世代間與跨文化間傳播,在持續散播與保存場所精神上所扮演的重要角色後,我們建議年輕世代,以及與場所有關之不同文化團體,在場所精神政策制定與管理上,能多多合作及參與。

10. Recognizing that intergenerational and transcultural transmissions play an important role in the sustained dissemination and the preservation of the spirit of place, we recommend the association and involvement of younger generations as well as of different cultural groups associated with the site in policy-making and management of the spirit of place. 



P.S. 以上「魁北克宣言」中文翻譯轉載在自文建會官方網站

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